Financial Institution Letters
|Office of the Comptroller of
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Office of Thrift Supervision
National Credit Union Administration
INDEPENDENT APPRAISAL AND EVALUATION FUNCTIONS
The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (FRB), the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), the Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), and the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) (the agencies) are jointly issuing this statement to address concerns identified during examinations about the independence of the collateral valuation process. This statement applies to all real estate-related financial transactions originated or purchased by a regulated institution for its own portfolio or as assets held for sale. It provides further clarification of, and should be reviewed in conjunction with, the agencies' appraisal and real estate lending regulations1 and the Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines (Guidelines).2
An institution's board of directors is responsible for reviewing and adopting policies and procedures that establish and maintain an effective, independent real estate appraisal and evaluation program (program) for all of its lending functions. The real estate lending functions include commercial real estate mortgage departments, capital market groups, and asset securitization and sales units. These independence concerns include the risk that improperly prepared appraisals may undermine the integrity of credit underwriting processes. More broadly, an institution's lending functions should not have undue influence that might compromise the program's independence.
Selecting Individuals to Perform Appraisals or Evaluations
The Guidelines establish minimum standards for an effective program, including standards for selecting individuals who may perform appraisals or evaluations. Among other considerations, the selection criteria must provide for the independence of the individual performing the appraisal or evaluation. That is, the individual has neither a direct nor indirect, interest, financial or otherwise, in the property or transaction. Institutions also need to ensure that the individual selected is competent to perform the assignment. Consideration should be given to the individual's qualifications, experience, and educational background. Selection occurs when, based on an oral or written agreement, the individual accepts the assignment to appraise or evaluate a particular property. Moreover, appraisal or evaluation development work should not commence until the institution finalizes the selection process.
The agencies' appraisal regulations address appraiser independence and require that an institution, or its agent, directly engage the appraiser. The only exception to this requirement is that an institution may use an appraisal prepared for another financial services institution, provided that the institution determines that the appraisal conforms to the agencies' appraisal regulations and is otherwise acceptable. Independence is compromised when an institution uses an appraiser who is recommended by the borrower or allows the borrower to select the appraiser from the institution's list of approved appraisers.
Institutions may not use an appraisal prepared by an individual who was selected or engaged by a borrower. An institution's use of a borrower-ordered appraisal violates the agencies' appraisal regulations. Likewise, institutions may not use "readdressed appraisals" -- appraisal reports that are altered by the appraiser to replace any references to the original client with the institution's name. Altering an appraisal report in a manner that conceals the original client or intended users of the appraisal is misleading and violates the agencies' appraisal regulations and the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP).
It is also important to ensure that the program is safeguarded from internal influence and interference from an institution's loan production staff. Individuals independent from the loan production area should oversee the selection of appraisers and individuals providing evaluation services. The agencies recognize that it may not be possible or practical for small institutions to separate the collateral valuation and loan production processes. To ensure independence, loan officials, officers or directors with the responsibility for ordering appraisals and evaluations should not have sole approval authority for granting the loan request.
When selecting and engaging individuals, an institution needs to identify the assignment and order the appropriate appraisal or evaluation, as discussed in the Guidelines. To foster control and accountability, the agencies encourage an institution to use written engagement letters when ordering appraisals, especially for large, complex, or out-of-area commercial real estate properties. An institution should include a copy of the written engagement letter in the permanent loan file. An appraiser may also incorporate an engagement letter in the appraisal report. The engagement letter confirms that the assignment was made in a manner that complies with the institution's procedures and the agencies' regulations and Guidelines.
Appraisal and Evaluation Compliance Reviews
An institution's appraisal and evaluation program must maintain effective internal controls that promote compliance with program standards and the agencies' appraisal regulations and Guidelines. Internal controls should, among other criteria, confirm that appraisals and evaluations are reviewed by qualified and adequately trained individuals who are not involved in the loan production processes. The institution's standards for and the depth of such reviews should reflect the risk of the transaction and the process through which the appraisal or evaluation is obtained. An institution should establish more in depth review procedures for appraisals of large, complex or out-of-area commercial real estate credits and for those appraisals and evaluations that are ordered by agents of the institution, such as loan brokers or another financial services institution.
Even in small institutions when absolute lines of independence cannot be achieved, effective internal controls should be implemented to ensure that no single person has sole authority to render credit decisions involving loans on which they ordered or reviewed the appraisal or evaluation. Further, lending officials, officers, or directors should abstain from any vote or approval involving loans for which they performed the appraisal or evaluation.
Examiners will review an institution's standards of independence, taking into consideration the size of the institution and the nature and complexity of its real estate-related activities. Examiners will consider whether policies and procedures are comprehensive and applied uniformly to all units engaging in federally related transactions.
If an institution suspects that a licensed or certified appraiser is violating applicable laws or USPAP, or is otherwise engaging in other unethical or unprofessional conduct, the institution should make referrals directly to the appropriate state appraiser regulatory authorities. Examiners finding evidence of unethical or unprofessional conduct, including improperly prepared appraisals or evaluations and readdressed appraisals, should forward their findings and their recommendations to their supervisory office for appropriate disposition and referral to the state appraiser regulatory authority, as necessary. Institutions and institution-affiliated parties, including lenders, staff and fee appraisers, are reminded that they could be subject to enforcement actions, which include removal/prohibition orders, cease and desist orders, and civil money penalties, for violations of the agencies' appraisal and real estate lending regulations.
1OCC: 12 CFR 34, subparts C and D; FRB: 12 CFR 208 subpart E and appendix C, and 12 CFR 225 subpart G; FDIC: 12 CFR 323 and 12 CFR Part 365; OTS: 12 CFR Part 564, and 12 CFR 560.100, and 12 CFR 560.101; and NCUA: 12 CFR Part 722.5.
2 The interagency guidelines may be found in: Comptroller's Handbook for Commercial Real Estate and Construction Lending for OCC; SR letter 94-55 for FRB; FIL-74-94 for FDIC; and Thrift Bulletin 55a for OTS. NCUA was not a party to the Guidelines; however, the NCUA applies the content to credit unions, when applicable.
ADVISORY OPINION 26 (AO-26)
This communication by the Appraisal Standards Board (ASB) does not establish new standards or interpret existing standards. Advisory Opinions are issued to illustrate the applicability of appraisal standards in specific situations and to offer advice from the ASB for the resolution of appraisal issues and problems.
SUBJECT: Readdressing (Transferring) a Report to Another Party
APPLICATION: Real Property, Personal Property, and Intangible Property
After an assignment has been completed and the report has been delivered, an appraiser may be asked to readdress (transfer) the report to another party. Does USPAP allow an appraiser to readdress (transfer) a report by altering it to indicate a new recipient as the client or additional intended user when the original report was completed for another party?
ADVICE FROM THE ASB ON THE ISSUE:
Relevant USPAP & Advisory References
Relevant USPAP & Advisory References (AO-26)
TheConfidentiality and Conduct sections of the ETHICS RULE.
Standards Rules such as1-2(a) and 1-2(b); 7-2(a) and 7-2(b); and 9-2(a), which require an appraiser to identify the client, intended users, and intended use.
Standards Rules such as2-1(a), 8-1(a), 10-1(a), which require an appraiser to clearly and accurately set forth the appraisal in a manner that is not misleading.
SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS RULE, which requires an appraiser to ascertain whether supplemental standards apply to the assignment in addition to USPAP.
Statement on Appraisal Standards 9 (SMT-9), which requires the appraiser to identify and disclose the client and intended users and the intended use in an appraisal, appraisal review, or appraisal consulting assignment.
Statement on Appraisal Standards No. 10 (SMT-10), which describes applicability of USPAP in federally related transactions.
Advisory Opinion 25 (AO-25), which covers clarification of the client in a federally related transaction.
Advisory Opinion 27 (AO-27), which addresses appraising the same property for a new client.
No. Once a report has been prepared for a named client(s) and any other identified intended users and for an identified intended use, the appraiser cannot readdress (transfer) the report to another party.
USPAP defines the Client as:
The party or parties who engage an appraiser (by employment or contract) in a specific assignment. (Bold added for emphasis)
Assignment is defined as:
A valuation service provided as a consequence of an agreement between an appraiser and a client. (Bold added for emphasis)
Intended Use is defined as:
the use or uses of an appraiser’s reported appraisal, appraisal review, or appraisal consulting assignment opinions and conclusions, as identified by the appraiser based on communication with the client at the time of the assignment. (Bold added for emphasis)
Intended User is defined as:
the client and any other party as identified, by name or type, as users of the appraisal, appraisal review, or appraisal consulting report by the appraiser on the basis of communication with the client at the time of the assignment. (Bold added for emphasis)
Identification of the client, any other intended users, and the intended use are key elements in all assignments. Because these identifications drive the appraisers scope of work decision, as well as other elements of the assignment, they must be determined at the time of the assignment. They cannot be modified after an assignment has been completed. See Statement on Appraisal Standards No. 9 (SMT-9) for further clarification.